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Nepal's Foot Hills (Foot hill zone)

The Sub-Himalayas is the youngest range of the whole Himalayas. Its origin is directly related with the elevation of the Tibetan-Tethys Himalayas, Higher Himalayas and Lesser Himalayas.

The sediments of the Siwaliks was deposited in the foredeep basin just in front of the rising mountain chain. The evolution of the Himalayas started when the Indian plate collided with the Eurasian plate. The actual upliftment of the Himalayas began about 38M a ago.


It is commonly used for molasses type Neogene's sediments of Himalayan foot hill zone. The age range as indicated by mammalians fossils from middle Miocene to early Pliocene.

In Nepal the Siwalik system form 20-30 km Foot Hill belt sand extend south into the subsurface of the genetics plain these terrestrial largely fluviatile deposits reach over 5 km in thickness.

The Sub Himalayan Zone or the Siwaliks of Nepal extends throughout the country from east to west in the southern part. It is delineated by the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) and Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) in south and north respectively. The Siwaliks consist of very thick (4,000 to 6,000m) molasses-like fluvial sedimentary deposits comprising a coarsening-upwards sequence as a whole, which reflects the rising history of the Himalayas.

The name Siwalik was introduced for the Sub Himalayan rocks by Medlikott in 1864, and this term is derived from the Siwalik Hills in Deharadun (India). It is commonly used for the molasse-type Neogene sediments of the Himalayan Foot Hill zone. The age range, as indicated by the mammalian fossils, is from Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene.


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