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Dongkha: National Language
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Dongkha: National Language in Danger
Kingdom of Bhutan, Druk-Yul

National or official language: Dzongkha. 2,004,000 (1998 UN).
Literacy rate 15% to 18%
Also includes Assamese 30,000, Western Gurung, Limbu, Eastern Magar, Santali, Sherpa, Eastern Tamang, Assamese 30,000, Gurung, Limbu, Santali, Sherpa
Religion: Lamaistic Buddhist, Hindu
Deaf population 105,435
The number of languages listed for Bhutan is 24. Of those, all are living languages.

ADAP

South central, between Damphu and Shemgang, Ada village, Wangduephodrang District
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern

BROKKAT

Dur in central Bumthang District
Alternate names: BROKSKAD
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern

BROKPAKE

5,000 including 2,000 in and around Mera, 3,000 in and around Sagteng Sakteng Valley east of Trashigang District
Alternate names: MIRA SAGTENGPA, DAKPA, BROKPA, DAP, MERA SAGTENGPA, SAGTENGPA, MERAGSAGSTENGKHA.
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern

BUMTHANGKHA

30,000
Central. Bumthang and in the whole of central Bhutan. Mangdikha is in Mangdi District around Tongsa. Tsamangkha is on the east northeast border of Kurto. Salabekha is in the Yangtse District and Tawang and southeast Tibet
Alternate names: BUMTANP, BUMTHAPKHA, BUMTANG, KEBUMTAMP, BHUMTAM, BUMTHANG,
BUMTANGKHA

Dialects: URA, TANG, CHOGOR, CHUNMAT
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Eastern

BANTAWA - CHALIKHA

1,000
In and around Chali area, Shongar District, east Bhutan, north of Monggar
Alternate names: CHALI, TSHALI, CHALIPKHA, TSHALINGPA
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Eastern

CHOCANGACAKHA

20,000
East of Dzongkha, in lower areas of Monggar District, Tsamang and Tsakaling villages, and Lhuntsi District, Kurmet village
Alternate names: MAPHEKHA, RTSAMANGPA'IKHA, TSAGKAGLINGPA'IKHA, KURSMADKHA
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern

DAKPAKHA

1,000
Near Brokpake
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Eastern

DZALAKHA

15,000
Northeastern in Lhuntsi, Kurto District
Alternate names: DZALAMAT, YANGTSEBIKHA
Dialects: KHOMAKHA
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri

DZONGKHA

160,000
Population total both countries 160,000 or more. Alternate names: DRUKKE, DRUKHA, DUKPA, BHUTANESE, JONKHA, BHOTIA OF BHUTAN, BHOTIA OF DUKPA, ZONGKHAR, RDZONGKHA
Dialects: WANG-THE (THIMPHU-PUNAKHA), HA, NORTHERN THIMPHU
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern

GONGDUK

2,000
Alternate names: GONGDUBIKHA
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan

KHENGKHA

40,000
Central, Kheng, near Bumthangkha
Alternate names: KHENKHA, KHEN, KENG, KEN
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Eastern

KURTOKHA

10,000
Northeastern, especially in Kurto. The dialect around Tangmachu is more divergent
Alternate names: GURT*ú, KURTOPAKHA, KURTEOPKHA, KURTHOPKHA, KURTOBIKHA
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Eastern

LAKHA

8,000
Alternate names: TSHANGKHA
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern

LAYAKHA

Northern Punakha District, around Laya
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern

LEPCHA

2,000 in Bhutan
Lower valleys in the west and south
Alternate names: LAPCHE, RONG, RONGKE, RONGPA
Dialects: ILAMMU, TAMSANGMU, RENGJONGMU
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Lepcha

BANTAWA - LHOKPU

2,500
Between Samtsi and Phuntsoling
Alternate names: LHOBIKHA
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan

LUNANAKHA

700 (1998)
North, northeastern quadrant of Punakha Dzongkhak District, community of Lunana, on the Pho Chhu River north from Punakha, on the right fork about half way up the valley
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Southern

NEPALI

156,000 in Bhutan
In the foothills the entire length of Bhutan, especially south central
Alternate names: NEPALESE, GORKHALI, GURKHALI, KHASKURA, PARBATIYA, EASTERN PAHARI
Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari

NUPBIKHA

Around Trongsa town
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Eastern

NYENKHA

10,000
Sephu Geo. The Black River passes below their villages
Alternate names: HENKHA, LAP, MANGSDEKHA
Dialects: PHOBJIKHA, CHUTOBIKHA
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Eastern

OLEKHA

1,000
The 2 dialects have the Black Mountains between them, central Bhutan
Alternate names: MONPA
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Eastern

TIBETAN

4,000 in Bhutan
Alternate names: BHOKHA
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central

TSEKU

Alternate names: TSUKU, TSUKU, TZUKU
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Tibetan, Central

TSHANGLA

138,000 in Bhutan
Population total all countries 145,000. Alternate names: SANGLA, SHARCHAGPAKHA, SARCHAPKKHA, SHACHOPKHA, SHACHOBIIKHA, TSANGLA, MENBA, MONPA
Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Himalayish, Tibeto-Kanauri, Tibetic, Bodish, Tshangla

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